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Which states have child-access and/or secure storage laws?

26 states have adopted this policy

AL AK AZ AR CA CO CT DE FL GA HI ID IL IN IA KS KY LA ME MD MA MI MN MS MO MT NE NV NH NJ NM NY NC ND OH OK OR PA RI SC SD TN TX UT VT VA WA WV WI WY

Secure Storage or Child Access Prevention Required

Alabama has not adopted this policy

Secure Storage or Child Access Prevention Required

Alaska has not adopted this policy

Secure Storage or Child Access Prevention Required

Arizona has not adopted this policy

Secure Storage or Child Access Prevention Required

Arkansas has not adopted this policy

Secure Storage or Child Access Prevention Required

California has adopted this policy

When does the law apply?
When child may or is likely to access
How does the state define child?
Under 18
Does the state law require storage to prevent access by other prohibited people?
Yes

Secure Storage or Child Access Prevention Required

Colorado has adopted this policy

When does the law apply?
When child may or is likely to access
How does the state define child?
Under 18
Does the state law require storage to prevent access by other prohibited people?
Yes

Secure Storage or Child Access Prevention Required

Connecticut has adopted this policy

When does the law apply?
Any time not in owner's immediate control
How does the state define child?
Under 18
Does the state law require storage to prevent access by other prohibited people?
Yes

Secure Storage or Child Access Prevention Required

Delaware has adopted this policy

When does the law apply?
After child gains access
How does the state define child?
Under 18
Does the state law require storage to prevent access by other prohibited people?
Yes

Secure Storage or Child Access Prevention Required

Florida has adopted this policy

When does the law apply?
After child gains access
How does the state define child?
Under 16
Does the state law require storage to prevent access by other prohibited people?
No

Secure Storage or Child Access Prevention Required

Georgia has not adopted this policy

Secure Storage or Child Access Prevention Required

Hawaii has adopted this policy

When does the law apply?
After child gains access
How does the state define child?
Under 18
Does the state law require storage to prevent access by other prohibited people?
No

Secure Storage or Child Access Prevention Required

Idaho has not adopted this policy

Secure Storage or Child Access Prevention Required

Illinois has adopted this policy

When does the law apply?
After child gains access
How does the state define child?
Under 14
Does the state law require storage to prevent access by other prohibited people?
No

Secure Storage or Child Access Prevention Required

Indiana has not adopted this policy

Secure Storage or Child Access Prevention Required

Iowa has adopted this policy

When does the law apply?
After child gains access
How does the state define child?
Under 14
Does the state law require storage to prevent access by other prohibited people?
No

Secure Storage or Child Access Prevention Required

Kansas has not adopted this policy

Secure Storage or Child Access Prevention Required

Kentucky has not adopted this policy

Secure Storage or Child Access Prevention Required

Louisiana has not adopted this policy

Secure Storage or Child Access Prevention Required

Maine has adopted this policy

When does the law apply?
After child gains access
How does the state define child?
Under 16
Does the state law require storage to prevent access by other prohibited people?
No

Secure Storage or Child Access Prevention Required

Maryland has adopted this policy

When does the law apply?
When child may or is likely to access
How does the state define child?
Under 18
Does the state law require storage to prevent access by other prohibited people?
No

Secure Storage or Child Access Prevention Required

Massachusetts has adopted this policy

When does the law apply?
Any time not in owner's immediate control
How does the state define child?
Under 18
Does the state law require storage to prevent access by other prohibited people?
No

Secure Storage or Child Access Prevention Required

Michigan has adopted this policy

When does the law apply?
After child gains access
How does the state define child?
Under 18
Does the state law require storage to prevent access by other prohibited people?
No

Secure Storage or Child Access Prevention Required

Minnesota has adopted this policy

When does the law apply?
When child may or is likely to access
How does the state define child?
Under 18
Does the state law require storage to prevent access by other prohibited people?
No

Secure Storage or Child Access Prevention Required

Mississippi has not adopted this policy

Secure Storage or Child Access Prevention Required

Missouri has not adopted this policy

Secure Storage or Child Access Prevention Required

Montana has not adopted this policy

Secure Storage or Child Access Prevention Required

Nebraska has not adopted this policy

Secure Storage or Child Access Prevention Required

Nevada has adopted this policy

When does the law apply?
When child may or is likely to access
How does the state define child?
Under 18
Does the state law require storage to prevent access by other prohibited people?
No

Secure Storage or Child Access Prevention Required

New Hampshire has adopted this policy

When does the law apply?
After child gains access
How does the state define child?
Under 16
Does the state law require storage to prevent access by other prohibited people?
No

Secure Storage or Child Access Prevention Required

New Jersey has adopted this policy

When does the law apply?
After child gains access
How does the state define child?
Under 16
Does the state law require storage to prevent access by other prohibited people?
No

Secure Storage or Child Access Prevention Required

New Mexico has adopted this policy

When does the law apply?
After child gains access
How does the state define child?
Under 18
Does the state law require storage to prevent access by other prohibited people?
No

Secure Storage or Child Access Prevention Required

New York has adopted this policy

When does the law apply?
When child may or is likely to access
How does the state define child?
Under 16
Does the state law require storage to prevent access by other prohibited people?
Yes

Secure Storage or Child Access Prevention Required

North Carolina has adopted this policy

When does the law apply?
After child gains access
How does the state define child?
Under 18
Does the state law require storage to prevent access by other prohibited people?
No

Secure Storage or Child Access Prevention Required

North Dakota has not adopted this policy

Secure Storage or Child Access Prevention Required

Ohio has not adopted this policy

Secure Storage or Child Access Prevention Required

Oklahoma has not adopted this policy

Secure Storage or Child Access Prevention Required

Oregon has adopted this policy

When does the law apply?
Any time not in owner's immediate control
How does the state define child?
Under 18
Does the state law require storage to prevent access by other prohibited people?
No

Secure Storage or Child Access Prevention Required

Pennsylvania has not adopted this policy

Secure Storage or Child Access Prevention Required

Rhode Island has adopted this policy

When does the law apply?
After child gains access
How does the state define child?
Under 16
Does the state law require storage to prevent access by other prohibited people?
No

Secure Storage or Child Access Prevention Required

South Carolina has not adopted this policy

Secure Storage or Child Access Prevention Required

South Dakota has not adopted this policy

Secure Storage or Child Access Prevention Required

Tennessee has not adopted this policy

Secure Storage or Child Access Prevention Required

Texas has adopted this policy

When does the law apply?
After child gains access
How does the state define child?
Under 17
Does the state law require storage to prevent access by other prohibited people?
No

Secure Storage or Child Access Prevention Required

Utah has not adopted this policy

Secure Storage or Child Access Prevention Required

Vermont has adopted this policy

When does the law apply?
After child gains access
How does the state define child?
Under 18
Does the state law require storage to prevent access by other prohibited people?
Yes

Secure Storage or Child Access Prevention Required

Virginia has adopted this policy

When does the law apply?
When child may or is likely to access
How does the state define child?
Under 14
Does the state law require storage to prevent access by other prohibited people?
No

Secure Storage or Child Access Prevention Required

Washington has adopted this policy

When does the law apply?
After child gains access
How does the state define child?
Under 18
Does the state law require storage to prevent access by other prohibited people?
Yes

Secure Storage or Child Access Prevention Required

West Virginia has not adopted this policy

Secure Storage or Child Access Prevention Required

Wisconsin has adopted this policy

When does the law apply?
After child gains access
How does the state define child?
Under 14
Does the state law require storage to prevent access by other prohibited people?
No

Secure Storage or Child Access Prevention Required

Wyoming has not adopted this policy

What It Does

Secure storage laws prevent unauthorized access by children by requiring gun owners to lock up their firearms. The strongest systems have consequences for any failure to secure a gun. Less-strong policies, sometimes called “Child-Access Prevention (CAP) laws,” penalize gun owners only if a child actually gains access to a firearm. While some state laws are concerned only with the threat of child access, others also include consequences if an un-secure gun is likely to be obtained by an adult who is legally prohibited from possession. A full discussion on Secure Storage is here.

The Impact

Secure gun storage reduces youth gun violence dramatically, with households that lock firearms and ammunition seeing up to 85% fewer unintentional injuries. State storage laws also incentivize better practices, with researchers finding they reduce injuries and deaths among young people.

Secure Storage or Child Access Prevention Required

Policy adopted? When does the law apply? How does the state define child? Does the state law require storage to prevent access by other prohibited people?
Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California When child may or is likely to access Under 18 Yes
Colorado When child may or is likely to access Under 18 Yes
Connecticut Any time not in owner's immediate control Under 18 Yes
Delaware After child gains access Under 18 Yes
Florida After child gains access Under 16 No
Georgia
Hawaii After child gains access Under 18 No
Idaho
Illinois After child gains access Under 14 No
Indiana
Iowa After child gains access Under 14 No
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine After child gains access Under 16 No
Maryland When child may or is likely to access Under 18 No
Massachusetts Any time not in owner's immediate control Under 18 No
Michigan After child gains access Under 18 No
Minnesota When child may or is likely to access Under 18 No
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada When child may or is likely to access Under 18 No
New Hampshire After child gains access Under 16 No
New Jersey After child gains access Under 16 No
New Mexico After child gains access Under 18 No
New York When child may or is likely to access Under 16 Yes
North Carolina After child gains access Under 18 No
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon Any time not in owner's immediate control Under 18 No
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island After child gains access Under 16 No
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas After child gains access Under 17 No
Utah
Vermont After child gains access Under 18 Yes
Virginia When child may or is likely to access Under 14 No
Washington After child gains access Under 18 Yes
West Virginia
Wisconsin After child gains access Under 14 No
Wyoming
Show Citations and Footnotes
Source: Cal. Penal Code §§ 25000—25225; Colo. Rev. Stat. § 18-12-114; Conn. Gen. Stat. §§ 29-37i, 53a-217a; Del. Code Ann. tit. 11, §§ 1456, 603 ; Fla. Stat. §§ 790.174, 790.175, 784.05; Haw. Rev. Stat. §§ 134-10.5, 707-714.5; 720 Ill. Comp. Stat. § 5/24-9; Iowa Code § 724.22(7); Me. Stat. tit. 17-A, § 554, sub-§ 1, B-4, sub-§ 4; Md. Code Ann., Crim. Law § 4-104; Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 140, § 131L; MCLS § 28.429; Minn. Stat. § 609.666; Nev. Rev. Stat. § 202.300; N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 650-C:1; N.J. Stat. Ann. § 2C:58-15; NM House Bill 9 (2023); N.Y. Penal Law §§ 265.45, 265.50; N.C. Gen. Stat. § 14-315.1; 2021 OR S 554, sec. 3; 11 R.I. Gen. Laws § 11-47-60.1; Tex. Penal Code Ann. § 46.13; Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-56.2; 13 V.S.A. § 4024; Wash. Rev. Code § 9.41.360; Wis. Stat. § 948.55

85%: Grossman DC, Mueller BA, Riedy C, et al. Gun storage practices and risk of youth suicide and unintentional firearm injuries. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2005;293(6):707-714.

Injuries and deaths: DeSimone, Jeffrey, Sara Markowitz, and Jing Xu. "Child access prevention laws and nonfatal gun injuries." Southern Economic Journal 80, no. 1 (2013): 5-25.

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