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Which states require a permit to carry concealed guns in public?

25 states have adopted this policy

AL AK AZ AR CA CO CT DE FL GA HI ID IL IN IA KS KY LA ME MD MA MI MN MS MO MT NE NV NH NJ NM NY NC ND OH OK OR PA RI SC SD TN TX UT VT VA WA WV WI WY

Concealed Carry Permit Required

Alabama has not adopted this policy

Concealed Carry Permit Required

Alaska has not adopted this policy

Concealed Carry Permit Required

Arizona has not adopted this policy

Concealed Carry Permit Required

Arkansas has not adopted this policy

Concealed Carry Permit Required

California has adopted this policy

If so, does the state require training?
Yes
Does state training include firing an actual gun?
Yes

Concealed Carry Permit Required

Colorado has adopted this policy

If so, does the state require training?
Yes
Does state training include firing an actual gun?
No

Concealed Carry Permit Required

Connecticut has adopted this policy

If so, does the state require training?
Yes
Does state training include firing an actual gun?
Yes

Concealed Carry Permit Required

Delaware has adopted this policy

If so, does the state require training?
Yes
Does state training include firing an actual gun?
Yes

Concealed Carry Permit Required

Florida has adopted this policy

If so, does the state require training?
Yes
Does state training include firing an actual gun?
Yes

Concealed Carry Permit Required

Georgia has not adopted this policy

Concealed Carry Permit Required

Hawaii has adopted this policy

If so, does the state require training?
Yes
Does state training include firing an actual gun?
No

Concealed Carry Permit Required

Idaho has not adopted this policy

Concealed Carry Permit Required

Illinois has adopted this policy

If so, does the state require training?
Yes
Does state training include firing an actual gun?
Yes

Concealed Carry Permit Required

Indiana has not adopted this policy

Concealed Carry Permit Required

Iowa has not adopted this policy

Concealed Carry Permit Required

Kansas has not adopted this policy

Concealed Carry Permit Required

Kentucky has not adopted this policy

Concealed Carry Permit Required

Louisiana has adopted this policy

If so, does the state require training?
Yes
Does state training include firing an actual gun?
Yes

Concealed Carry Permit Required

Maine has not adopted this policy

Concealed Carry Permit Required

Maryland has adopted this policy

If so, does the state require training?
Yes
Does state training include firing an actual gun?
Yes

Concealed Carry Permit Required

Massachusetts has adopted this policy

If so, does the state require training?
Yes
Does state training include firing an actual gun?
No

Concealed Carry Permit Required

Michigan has adopted this policy

If so, does the state require training?
Yes
Does state training include firing an actual gun?
Yes

Concealed Carry Permit Required

Minnesota has adopted this policy

If so, does the state require training?
Yes
Does state training include firing an actual gun?
Yes

Concealed Carry Permit Required

Mississippi has not adopted this policy

Concealed Carry Permit Required

Missouri has not adopted this policy

Concealed Carry Permit Required

Montana has not adopted this policy

Concealed Carry Permit Required

Nebraska has adopted this policy

If so, does the state require training?
Yes
Does state training include firing an actual gun?
Yes

Concealed Carry Permit Required

Nevada has adopted this policy

If so, does the state require training?
Yes
Does state training include firing an actual gun?
Yes

Concealed Carry Permit Required

New Hampshire has not adopted this policy

Concealed Carry Permit Required

New Jersey has adopted this policy

If so, does the state require training?
Yes
Does state training include firing an actual gun?
Yes

Concealed Carry Permit Required

New Mexico has adopted this policy

If so, does the state require training?
Yes
Does state training include firing an actual gun?
Yes

Concealed Carry Permit Required

New York has adopted this policy

If so, does the state require training?
Yes
Does state training include firing an actual gun?
Yes

Concealed Carry Permit Required

North Carolina has adopted this policy

If so, does the state require training?
Yes
Does state training include firing an actual gun?
Yes

Concealed Carry Permit Required

North Dakota has not adopted this policy

Concealed Carry Permit Required

Ohio has not adopted this policy

Concealed Carry Permit Required

Oklahoma has not adopted this policy

Concealed Carry Permit Required

Oregon has adopted this policy

If so, does the state require training?
Yes
Does state training include firing an actual gun?
No

Concealed Carry Permit Required

Pennsylvania has adopted this policy

If so, does the state require training?
No
Does state training include firing an actual gun?

Concealed Carry Permit Required

Rhode Island has adopted this policy

If so, does the state require training?
Yes
Does state training include firing an actual gun?
Yes

Concealed Carry Permit Required

South Carolina has adopted this policy

If so, does the state require training?
Yes
Does state training include firing an actual gun?
Yes

Concealed Carry Permit Required

South Dakota has not adopted this policy

Concealed Carry Permit Required

Tennessee has not adopted this policy

Concealed Carry Permit Required

Texas has not adopted this policy

Concealed Carry Permit Required

Utah has not adopted this policy

Concealed Carry Permit Required

Vermont has not adopted this policy

Concealed Carry Permit Required

Virginia has adopted this policy

If so, does the state require training?
Yes
Does state training include firing an actual gun?
No

Concealed Carry Permit Required

Washington has adopted this policy

If so, does the state require training?
No
Does state training include firing an actual gun?

Concealed Carry Permit Required

West Virginia has not adopted this policy

Concealed Carry Permit Required

Wisconsin has adopted this policy

If so, does the state require training?
Yes
Does state training include firing an actual gun?
No

Concealed Carry Permit Required

Wyoming has not adopted this policy

What It Does

Prior to 2010, only two states allowed people to carry concealed guns without first obtaining a permit. Since that time, allowing permitless carry has been a top priority of the gun lobby—and many states have repealed this fundamental safety requirement. The strongest public carry policies require firearm training in order to get a permit, including live-fire instruction. A full discussion on Permitless Carry is here.

The Impact

Studies of states that weaken their permitting systems have shown an 11% increase in handgun homicide rates and a 13% to 15% increase in overall violent crime rates.

Concealed Carry Permit Required

Policy adopted? If so, does the state require training? Does state training include firing an actual gun?
Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California Yes Yes
Colorado Yes No
Connecticut Yes Yes
Delaware Yes Yes
Florida Yes Yes
Georgia
Hawaii Yes No
Idaho
Illinois Yes Yes
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana Yes Yes
Maine
Maryland Yes Yes
Massachusetts Yes No
Michigan Yes Yes
Minnesota Yes Yes
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska Yes Yes
Nevada Yes Yes
New Hampshire
New Jersey Yes Yes
New Mexico Yes Yes
New York Yes Yes
North Carolina Yes Yes
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon Yes No
Pennsylvania No
Rhode Island Yes Yes
South Carolina Yes Yes
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia Yes No
Washington No
West Virginia
Wisconsin Yes No
Wyoming
Show Citations and Footnotes
Source: Cal. Penal Code § 25400; Colo. Rev. Stat. § 18-12-105(2)(c); Conn. Gen. Stat. § 29-35(a); Del. Code Ann. tit. 11, § 1441; Fla. Stat. § 790.06; Haw. Rev. Stat. § 134-9(a); 720 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/24-1; La. Stat. Ann. § 40:1379.3; Md. Code Ann., Crim. Law § 4-203(a); Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 269, § 10(a)(2); Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 140, § 131; Mich. Comp. Laws §§ 28.421a, 28.425b; Minn. Stat. § 624.714(Subd. 1a); Neb. Rev. Stat. § 69-2430; Nev. Rev. Stat. § 202.3657; N.J. Stat. Ann. § 2C:58-4; N.M. Stat. Ann. §§ 30-7-2, 29-19-3; N.Y. Penal Law § 400.00(1); N.C. Gen. Stat. § 14-415.11; Or. Rev. Stat. § 166.291; 18 Pa. Cons. Stat. § 6106; 11 R.I. Gen. Laws § 11-47-8; S.C. Code Ann. § 16-23-20; Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-308.01; Wash. Rev. Code § 9.41.050; Wis. Stat. § 175.60.

11%: Siegel M, Xuan Z, Ross CS, Galea S, Kalesan B, Fleeger E, & Goss KA. (2017, December). Easiness of legal access to concealed firearm permits and homicide rates in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 107(12): 1923-29. Retrieved January 19, 2022, from https://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/10.2105/AJPH.2017.304057.

13-15%: Donohue JJ, Aneja A, and Weber KD. (2018, November). Right-to-carry laws and violent crime: A comprehensive assessment using panel data and a state-level synthetic control analysis. National Bureau of Economic Research working paper 23510. Retrieved January 19, 2022, from https://www.nber.org/papers/w23510.pdf.

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