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Which states have Extreme Risk laws?

19 states have adopted this policy

AL AK AZ AR CA CO CT DE FL GA HI ID IL IN IA KS KY LA ME MD MA MI MN MS MO MT NE NV NH NJ NM NY NC ND OH OK OR PA RI SC SD TN TX UT VT VA WA WV WI WY

Extreme Risk Law

Alabama has not adopted this policy

Extreme Risk Law

Alaska has not adopted this policy

Extreme Risk Law

Arizona has not adopted this policy

Extreme Risk Law

Arkansas has not adopted this policy

Extreme Risk Law

California has adopted this policy

Who may petition for an order?
Law enforcement, immediate family members, employers, coworkers, and employees/teachers

Extreme Risk Law

Colorado has adopted this policy

Who may petition for an order?
Law enforcement and family/household members

Extreme Risk Law

Connecticut has adopted this policy

Who may petition for an order?
Law enforcement, family/household members, and medical professionals

Extreme Risk Law

Delaware has adopted this policy

Who may petition for an order?
Law enforcement and family members

Extreme Risk Law

Florida has adopted this policy

Who may petition for an order?
Law enforcement only

Extreme Risk Law

Georgia has not adopted this policy

Extreme Risk Law

Hawaii has adopted this policy

Who may petition for an order?
Law enforcement, family/household members, medical professionals, educators, and colleagues

Extreme Risk Law

Idaho has not adopted this policy

Extreme Risk Law

Illinois has adopted this policy

Who may petition for an order?
Law enforcement and family members

Extreme Risk Law

Indiana has adopted this policy

Who may petition for an order?
Law enforcement only

Extreme Risk Law

Iowa has not adopted this policy

Extreme Risk Law

Kansas has not adopted this policy

Extreme Risk Law

Kentucky has not adopted this policy

Extreme Risk Law

Louisiana has not adopted this policy

Extreme Risk Law

Maine has not adopted this policy

Extreme Risk Law

Maryland has adopted this policy

Who may petition for an order?
Law enforcement, family members, doctors, and mental health professionals

Extreme Risk Law

Massachusetts has adopted this policy

Who may petition for an order?
Family/household members and gun licensing authorities

Extreme Risk Law

Michigan has not adopted this policy

Extreme Risk Law

Minnesota has not adopted this policy

Extreme Risk Law

Mississippi has not adopted this policy

Extreme Risk Law

Missouri has not adopted this policy

Extreme Risk Law

Montana has not adopted this policy

Extreme Risk Law

Nebraska has not adopted this policy

Extreme Risk Law

Nevada has adopted this policy

Who may petition for an order?
Law enforcement and family/household members

Extreme Risk Law

New Hampshire has not adopted this policy

Extreme Risk Law

New Jersey has adopted this policy

Who may petition for an order?
Law enforcement and family/household members

Extreme Risk Law

New Mexico has adopted this policy

Who may petition for an order?
Law enforcement only

Extreme Risk Law

New York has adopted this policy

Who may petition for an order?
Law enforcement, district attorneys, family/household members, and school administrators

Extreme Risk Law

North Carolina has not adopted this policy

Extreme Risk Law

North Dakota has not adopted this policy

Extreme Risk Law

Ohio has not adopted this policy

Extreme Risk Law

Oklahoma has not adopted this policy

Extreme Risk Law

Oregon has adopted this policy

Who may petition for an order?
Law enforcement and family/household members

Extreme Risk Law

Pennsylvania has not adopted this policy

Extreme Risk Law

Rhode Island has adopted this policy

Who may petition for an order?
Law enforcement only

Extreme Risk Law

South Carolina has not adopted this policy

Extreme Risk Law

South Dakota has not adopted this policy

Extreme Risk Law

Tennessee has not adopted this policy

Extreme Risk Law

Texas has not adopted this policy

Extreme Risk Law

Utah has not adopted this policy

Extreme Risk Law

Vermont has adopted this policy

Who may petition for an order?
States attorneys and the Office of the Attorney General

Extreme Risk Law

Virginia has adopted this policy

Who may petition for an order?
Law enforcement and Commonwealth Attorneys

Extreme Risk Law

Washington has adopted this policy

Who may petition for an order?
Law enforcement and family/household members

Extreme Risk Law

West Virginia has not adopted this policy

Extreme Risk Law

Wisconsin has not adopted this policy

Extreme Risk Law

Wyoming has not adopted this policy

What It Does

Extreme Risk laws allow for quick intervention when a person is at serious risk of harming themselves or others with a firearm. These laws enable law enforcement to ask for a court order that temporarily removes guns from these dangerous situations — and prohibits the person from buying new guns. The strongest policies allow family members to file petitions as well.

The Impact

Researchers have estimated that one suicide is averted for every ten Extreme Risk orders in a Connecticut study — and found the policy is associated with a 7.5% drop in the gun suicide rate in Indiana.

Extreme Risk Law

Policy adopted? Who may petition for an order?
Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California Law enforcement, immediate family members, employers, coworkers, and employees/teachers
Colorado Law enforcement and family/household members
Connecticut Law enforcement, family/household members, and medical professionals
Delaware Law enforcement and family members
Florida Law enforcement only
Georgia
Hawaii Law enforcement, family/household members, medical professionals, educators, and colleagues
Idaho
Illinois Law enforcement and family members
Indiana Law enforcement only
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland Law enforcement, family members, doctors, and mental health professionals
Massachusetts Family/household members and gun licensing authorities
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada Law enforcement and family/household members
New Hampshire
New Jersey Law enforcement and family/household members
New Mexico Law enforcement only
New York Law enforcement, district attorneys, family/household members, and school administrators
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon Law enforcement and family/household members
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island Law enforcement only
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont States attorneys and the Office of the Attorney General
Virginia Law enforcement and Commonwealth Attorneys
Washington Law enforcement and family/household members
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming
Show Citations and Footnotes
Source: Cal. Penal Code §§ 18100—18205; Colo. Rev. Stat. §§ 13-14.5-101—13-14.5-114; Conn. Gen. Stat. § 29-38c; Del. Code Ann. tit. 10, §§ 7701—7709; Fla. Stat. § 790.401; Haw. Rev. Stat. §§ 134-61—134-72.; 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. §§ 67/1—67/85; Ind. Code §§ 35-47-14-1—35-47-14-13.; Md. Code Ann., Pub. Safety §§ 5-601—5-610.; Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 140, §§ 121, 129B(C), 131(C), 131R-Z; Nev. Rev. Stat. §§ 33.500—33.670.; N.J. Stat. Ann. §§ 2C:58-20—2C:58-32; N.M. Stat. Ann. §§ 40-17-1, —40-17-13; N.Y. C.P.L.R. §§ 6340—6347; Or. Rev. Stat. §§ 166.525—166.543; 8 R.I. Gen. Laws §§ 8-8.3-1—8-8.3-14; Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 13, §§ 4051—4061; Va. Code Ann. §§ 19.2-152.13—19.2-152.17; Wash. Rev. Code §§ 7.94.010—7.94.020.

Connecticut: Swanson J. and et al. “Implementation and Effectiveness of Connecticut’s Risk-Based Gun Removal Law: Does it Prevent Suicides?”Law and Contemporary Problems. (2017). https://scholarship.law.duke.edu/lcp/vol80/iss2/8

Indiana: Kivisto A. J., & Phalen P. L. “Effects of Risk-Based Firearm Seizure Laws in Connecticut and Indiana on Suicide Rates, 1981–2015”. Psychiatric Services. (2018). https://bit.ly/2PJaFiQ

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